VoIP Voice Over Internet Protocol

VoIP Voice Over Internet Protocol   Topics PSTN VoIP VoIP Architecture Codec VoIP Gateway Signalling Protocols VoIP Terminals Advantages and Disadvantages PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network It is known as landline telephone system. It was designed for purely analog voice…
SONET Synchronous Optical Network

SONET Synchronous Optical Network Multiplex electrical signals (Digital) from different sources and creates optical carrier (OC). USA, CANADA and JAPAN developed T1 Standard. ANSI develop  SONET. The rest of the world uses a primary rate of E1. ITU-T develop  SDH.…
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing DWDM Prerequisite Multiplexing Optical Fiber PCM PDH SDH Transmission Fundamental WDM Wavelength division Multiplexing (WDM) technique increase the capacity of signal carrying medium. WDM technique assign different frequency / wavelength value to every incoming signal. These…
Multiplexing

  Multiplexing Multiplexing is a technique which allows sending multiple signals over a single data link. In simple words, Sharing of the medium between multiple signals. Topic. What is Multiplexing (MUX)? What is Demultiplexing? MUX types. FDM Frequency division MUX.…
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

  SDH synchronous digital hierarchy. It is a transmission method. This method is used in optical fibre transmission system called SDH system. We have already discussed the basic concepts of the transmission system. This video will give you the basic concept…
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy PCM Pulse code modulation is the basic block for PDH SDH and SONET. Sampling frequency must be twice the higher frequency component of the signal. Voice frequency sampling rate 8KHz (0.3 to 3.4 KHz = 4KHz). Each…
ITS Intelligent Transport System

Dailymotion Intelligent Transport System ITS. An intelligent Transport system is an application of technology. ITS is the integration of communication technology and computation devices. It provides important information, security, safety, and efficiency. It links people, Road, and vehicles. Conventional Transport system.…
Line Coding

Line Coding Line coding a technique to convert digital data into a digital signal.In our last video Pulse Code Modulation, we learn that how to convert any analog signal into digital bits.Now if we want to send these bit over a…
PCM Pulse Code Modulation

Pulse Code Modulation PCM Pulse code modulation is a technique, which is used to convert an analog signal into digital signal. PCM is the preferred method of communication within the public switched telephone network (PSTN). It is an old but widely…
Number system conversion

Number System The number system is a method to count or calculate something.In our daily life, we are using the different type of number system.The most common number system is decimal number system.Some number systems are the octal number system,…
T1 and E1 Lines

E1 and T1 Lines E1 and T1 standards are basically introduced for voice communication. Both are using TDM for frame formation. In this video, we will discuss the digital transmission advantages and disadvantages. Basic concept about Modulation, Multiplexing, and PCM is…
OSI Reference Model

OSI Reference Model In the beginning, when networks established, devices can communicate with devices of the same manufacturer. OSI (open system interconnection) reference model was first introduced by ISO (international organization for standardization).Its main purpose is to facilitate communication between two systems…