5G is the fifth generation of wireless network technology.
- Self-driving cars
- Intelligent Transport System
- Machine to Machine communication
- Remote device control
- More accurate location tracking
- Virtual reality
- Enhanced mobile broadband
Key Factors of 5G network
5G brings three main aspects to the world
- High speed : Up to 20 Gb
- lower latency : 5G offers low latency rate. Latency is the delay between the sending and receiving of information. 4G offers 200 milliseconds bur 5G offers 1 millisecond.The average human reaction time is 250 ms.
- Connect a lot more devices at a time
Several big mobile networks are contributing to bring 5G to life. 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is driving many inventions across all aspects of 5G design, testing and implementations.
5G Wireless Band
5G networks are introduced in three different flavors
- Low band : Operate at around 600 to 700 megahertz (MHz). Low band operates and performs like 4G. Offers great coverage area and wall penetration.Peak data speeds 100Mb/s.
- Mid band : Operate at around 2.5 to 3.5 GHz.
- High band : Operate at approximately 24 to 39 GHz.
In many countries the initial frequency bands for 5G are below 6 GHz similar to existing mobile and WiFi networks. Additional mobile spectrum above 6 GHz referred to as milli-meter Wave, will provide more capacity compared to the current mobile technologies.
How Fast is 5G
4G LTE mobile networks offer upto 45Mbps in field and expected to achieve 1Gbps. 5G speed varies for locations, countries, carriers and devices, but expected to achive 10G to 20G.
What makes 5G faster?
Shorter the frequency, the larger the bandwidth.
The use of shorter frequencies for 5G networks is the reason of fast speed.
How does 5G work?
Previous generations are using low-frequency bands.Lower-frequency spectrum covers greater distances but has lower speed.High frequencies spectrum has many issues related to distance and interference.Wireless industry is still considering the use of a lower-frequency spectrum they already own to build out their new 5G networks.
Wireless networks are composed of cellular sites that send data through radio waves. Fourth-generation (4G) network requires large, high-power cell towers to radiate signals over longer distances. 5G network requires small, low-power cell towers to radiate signals over short distance.Wireless signals will be transmitted via large numbers of small cell stations located near to user like light poles or building roofs. The use of multiple small cells is necessary because the high frequency signal can only travel over short distances and is subject to interference from weather and physical obstacles, like buildings or trees.
Possible Deployment Plan
- Fixed Hybrid Internet access. 5G will replace Internet access technologies with hybrid fiber and wireless technology connecting subscriber homes.
- Mobile service : 5G will provide increased capacity of mobile services to public spaces and venues. Multiple access points can be placed on poles or buildings to provide mobile coverage.
Will it work in rural areas?
5G operate on high-frequency bands and cover shorter distances. 5G is urban service for densely populated areas.
Low band Operate at around 600 to 700 megahertz (MHz) and performs like 4G. Lower-frequency bands are better over longer distances, so network operators will concentrate on improved 4G services instead of 5G.
Challenges in 5G installations
Mobile operators will need to operate a new frequency band in the range of 6 to 300 GHz, which means massive investments in the network infrastructure. 5G Network Architecture require significant changes in both the Core Network and Radio Access Network to deliver low latency.
- 5G coverage
5G networks will use a combination of high, medium and low frequency bands. HF wave may be used in densely populated areas, while low and mid frequency band will operate in less dense areas. Low-band frequencies can travel longer distance.
high frequency signals can be easily blocked by objects such as trees, buildings and even by the air. It means that even without obstacles, they can travel hundreds of meter whereas current mobile towers operates in kilo meters.
- Massive MIMO
5G will use ‘massive’ MIMO antennas that have very large numbers of antenna elements to send and receive more data simultaneously. The benefit to users is to connect a lot more devices at a time. More people can simultaneously connect to the network. 5G User devices will have MIMO antenna technology built into the device.
New Mobile phone
5G requires specific hardware and upgraded software. A phone software can be upgrade by a software update but for hardware, it must be replaced. To use 5G services, a user must have a device that supports 5G.
Samsung is currently working on 6G.
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