Collision Domain and Broadcast Domain

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Collision Domain

  • Collision domain is a network segment in which collision can happen.
  • It is a part of network where packet collision can occur.
  • Collision domain applies in wireless networks and early version of ethernet networks.
  • Collisions will happen in an Ethernet Network when two devices simultaneously try to send data on the Shared Media, since Shared Media is half-duplex and sending and recieving is not supported at same time.
  • We call the media as shared media when the devices are connected together using Bus topology, or by using an Ethernet Hub.
  • Collision happen in hub environment because every port of hub is in one collision domain.
  • With full duplex communication we don’t have this collision challenge anymore.
  • To deal with collision in wired network we use CSMA/CD and in wireless network we use CSMA/CA.

Broadcast Domain

  • A Broadcast Domain consists of all the devices that will receive any broadcast packet originating from any device within the network segment. A group of devices that can reach to each other by using broadcast messages.
  • We can not avoid broadcast because many protocols (like ARP and DHCP) use broadcast messages.
  • Use destination IP
  • Repeater, hub, switch or bridge are in ONE Broadcast domain.A router is used to break a broadcast domain.



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