FTTH Fiber to the Home

FTTx is a access network technology that uses optical fiber directly from the central point to the Home. FTTx offers triple play services voice, video and data.

Optical distribution network (ODN) architecture.. FTTx can be categorized into different

  • FTTC  = Fiber to the cabinet
  • FTTW = Fiber to the wireless
  • FTTH or FTTP = Fiber to the Home
  • FTTB  = Fiber to the building


  • High Data rate
  • Easy to install
  • Easy to upgrade
  • Cover Long distance (More than 20 Km)
  • No EMI
  • Low maintenance Cost
  • Low installation cost.

Fiber Optic Access Mode

Active Optical Network (P2P)

  • Dedicated higher bandwidth
  • Long distance upto 100 Km
  • Active equipment required (Router or switch)

Passive Optical Network (P2 Multi)

  • Efficient (Each fiber serve many users)
  • Limited distance upto 20 Km.
  • No active component.
  • Low cost

FTTH Passive Mode / PON Architecture

It is point to multipoint architecture in which unpowered optical splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve 32-128 premises. A passive splitter that takes one input and splits it to broadcast to many users. Passive mode is further divided into

EPON = Ethernet Passive Optical Network

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) developed the Ethernet family of standards, which includes EPON.

GPON = Gigabit Passive Optical Network

PON Architecture


A Central Office (CO) equipment provides PON with the various network interfaces. One OLT serves multiple ONTs


A passive equipment used to split optical signal with a ratio of 1:2 and 1:32


Customer premises equipment provides User interface

Optical Distribution Network

In a PON Technology towards downstream side, all passive components from the PON Port of OLT to the PON Port of ONT come under Optical Distribution Network.

Optical Access Network

The Optical Access Network is an access network towards the network side, it is also known as SNI (Service Network Interface).

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