Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming

Computer Program

A program is a set of instructions following the rules of the chosen language. Without programs, computer is useless.It contains a list of instructions that tell the computer what to do and how to do.


A sequence of instructions designed to solve a particular problem.

Flow Chart

It is the pictorial representation of logic used in a computer program.

Programming Language

A set of vocabulary and grammar rules to instruct a computer how to perform a specific task. It is used to create programs. GW Basic, C, C++, Java, COBOL and python are some examples.

Low level language

This language is closer to the machine. It contains combinations of binary bits “0” and “1”Computer understand this language only.Human can not understand this language.

High level language

High level language is just like English language. For example print, if, while, commands are used. Programs in high level language must be translated into low level language by using translator.

Language Translator

Language translator is program that convert programming language into machine language.It uses two ways

  • Compiler
  • Interpreter


Compile is to convert a program written in a high level programming language from source code into object code. This can be done by using a tool called compiler. A compiler reads the whole source code and translates it into a complete machine code program to perform the required tasks which is output as a new file. Examples for compiled languages: Fortran, Basic, Turbo Pascal, C, C++.


Interpreter is a program that executes instructions written in a high-level language. An interpreter reads the source code one instruction or line at a time, converts this line into machine code and executes it.

Middle Level Language / Assembly Language

Assembly language use English words and symbols as abbreviations. Assembler convert assembly language into machine language.


Programming errors are known as bug.The process of detecting and correcting errors is debugging.

Syntax Errors

Logic Errors

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