Internet Protocol address is the numeric identification of a computing machine on a network.
It tells the location of a device on a network.
It is also called the software Network address.
It allows a host to communicate on a network.
IP address Structure
It Consist of 32 bits.
32 bits are divided into 04 sections called octets.
Each octet contains 8 bits or 1 byte.
For human understanding it is configured in decimal format but for computer, it is converted into binary format.
It can handle 232 = 4294967296 addresses.(4.23 billion).
Network and Host Portion
IP address is divided into Network and Host addresses.
Network address is assigned to network and identifies the network.
Host address assigned to each machine in a network.
A network mask/subnet mask helps to know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node/Host. Class A, B, and C networks have default masks.It is assigned manually or by DHCP on all machines in a network. It is just for
Bitwise AND operation on IP address with subnet mask, provides the network identification.
These addresses are designed to save IP pool and to create security.