Mac Address

MAC Addresses is unique 48-bits address embedded into a  Network Interface card NIC during manufacturing process. These 6-byte addresses are expressed in 12 digits hexadecimal numbers.

Firewall is a network security tool that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and permits or blocks data packets based on defined rules.
Telecom Standards

Standards are essential in creating and maintaining an open and competitive market for equipment manufacturers and in guaranteeing national and international interoperability of data and telecommunications technology and processes.
Software Defined Networking SDN

Software defined network enables the network to be intelligent, centrally controlled and programmable using software. SDN controllers are used to direct traffic on the network and communicate with the underlying hardware infrastructure.